What’s the Golden Ratio and How is it Used in Dental Treatment?
The Greeks said that all beauty is mathematics. It is from this basic principle that the idea of the golden ratio was born. While the golden ratio as it relates to beauty is somewhat controversial, the golden ratio has shown to be very useful in evaluation and treatment for smile design, so these concepts are still used today. The golden ratio has been described as the ratio that is most attractive to the human eye and mind.
Origins of the Golden Ratio
The golden ratio was first recorded by the Pythagoreans. The symbol of the golden ratio is the pentagon, which the Pythagorean School took as their symbol. Simplified, the premise of the golden ration is that the ratio of the smaller length to the larger length is identical to the ratio of the larger length to the total length. The golden ratio is derived from this equation as being 1:1.618.
Golden Ratio and Facial Beauty
The golden ratio has been found to be present in most things that are considered beautiful. Human DNA, flowers, and many other naturally occurring patterns and designs include the golden ratio. It is from this idea that the Greeks began measuring facial features in an effort to mathematize facial beauty.
It was found that the golden ratio could be found between facial features of women that were considered beautiful. For example, a golden relationship was found between the nose and teeth and the teeth and the chin, with the distance between the nose and teeth being one and the distance between the teeth and the bottom of the chin being 1.618 in women that were considered beautiful.
Applying the Golden Ratio to Dentistry
A golden mean gauge was developed to apply the golden ratio quickly and easily to dental esthetics. The four front teeth, from central incisor to premolar are in golden ratio to each other in ideal smiles. When these teeth are not in agreement with the golden ratio, the golden mean gauge or subsequently developed charts can be used to help dentists and dental labs understand where teeth should ideally be placed. The golden ratio can also be used to help oral surgeons and orthodontists bring jaws into alignment for esthetic purposes and function.
Relationship Between Tooth Height and Width
The golden ratio has recently been found to be present between the width and height of the central incisors. When the incisors are ideal in height and width, the width of the two teeth combined will be equal to 1.618 the size of the height of each tooth. This discovery has been helpful in the fabrication of implants and other dental treatments.